Commit 34540889 authored by Alice Brenon's avatar Alice Brenon
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With a conclusion and a bibliography

parent 8c91b0a6
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# Abstract {-}
As witnesses to scientific progress, dictionaries and encyclopedias draw much
interest from digital humanities (Roe & al. (2016), Williams (2017), Vigier &
interest from digital humanities (Roe et al. (2016), Williams (2017), Vigier et
al. (2019), …), which accounts for the number of projects making them available
to the public (such as ARTFL[^ARTFL], ENCCRE[^ENCCRE], COLLEX-LGE[^LGE] and NENUFAR[^NENUFAR]) or
studying them in diachrony (such as BASNUM[^BASNUM] and GEODE[^GEODE])
to the public (such as ARTFL[^ARTFL], ENCCRE[^ENCCRE], COLLEX-LGE[^LGE] and
NENUFAR[^NENUFAR]) or studying them in diachrony (such as BASNUM[^BASNUM] and
GEODE[^GEODE]).
[^ARTFL]: [http://artfl-project.uchicago.edu/](http://artfl-project.uchicago.edu/)
[^ENCCRE]: [http://enccre.academie-sciences.fr/encyclopedie/](http://enccre.academie-sciences.fr/encyclopedie/)
......@@ -113,7 +114,7 @@ mere self-doubt that their authors should not generalise to mankind, then leaves
the main point to a latin quote by chancelor Bacon, who argues that a
collaborative work can achieve much more than any talented man could: what could
possibly not be within reach of a single man, within a single lifetime may be
achieved by a common effort throughout generations.
achieved by a common effort throughout generations (Lojkine, 2013).
History hints that Diderot's opponents took his defense of the feasability of
the project quite seriously, considering the fact that they got the
......@@ -438,15 +439,16 @@ tool for what we need is found in the `<usg/>` element used with a specific
documentation encode subject indicators very similar to the ones found in
encyclopedias within this element, but the match is not perfect either: all
appear within one of multiple senses, as if to clarify each context in which the
word can be used, as expected from the element's name, "usage". In encyclopedias,
if the domain indicator does in certain cases help to distinguish between
several entries sharing the same headword, the concept itself has evolved beyond
this mere distinction. Looking back at the *Encyclopédie*, the adjective
*raisonné* in the rest of the title directly introduces a notion of structure
that links back to the "Systême figuré des connoissances humaines". The authors
have devised a branching system to classify all knowledge, and the occurrence at
the beginning of articles, more than a tool to clear up possible ambiguities also
points the reader to the correct place in this mind map.
word can be used, as expected from the element's name, "usage". In
encyclopedias, if the domain indicator does in certain cases help to distinguish
between several entries sharing the same headword, the concept itself has
evolved beyond this mere distinction. Looking back at the *Encyclopédie*, the
adjective *raisonné* in the rest of the title directly introduces a notion of
structure that links back to the "Systême figuré des connoissances humaines"
(Blanchard et al., 2002). The authors have devised a branching system to
classify all knowledge, and the occurrence at the beginning of articles, more
than a tool to clear up possible ambiguities also points the reader to the
correct place in this mind map.
!["Systême figuré des connoissances humaines", the taxonomy at the heart of the Encyclopédie](ressources/arbre.png){width=200px}
......@@ -868,18 +870,32 @@ stop being maintained.
# Conclusion {-}
- Dictionaries and encyclopedias are different
- The *dictionaries* module is inadequate
- We provide an encoding
Despite long discussions and interesting proposals each with strong arguments both in
favour of and against them, no consensus could be reached. For one part, each
projects have specific constraints depending on the type of study it intends to
carry, the volume of text, or the condition of the physical source documents.
Beyond the technical need for encodings generic enough to share the corpora
within the community and compare the results accross various projects, the above
results highlights one aspect of a well-known fact within the community of
lexicography: encyclopedias and dictionaries differ on several key aspects
Though they are very close genres and share a common history, we have evidenced
key aspects on which dictionaries and encyclopedias differ. Not only do entries
tend to be longer in encyclopedias, they often have a deeper structure too.
Their purpose also departs from the purpose of dictionaries from their
inception, and, as anticipated by their pioneers, results in a different form of
discourse.
The structure of the XML-TEI *dictionaries* module reflects the assumptions made
by the eponymous genre and does not appear to be flexible enough to accomodate
encyclopedias. Forcing its use to some encyclopedic articles would breach the
semantics of some elements or require the encoder to break the rules of the
consortium's schema which we think would result in a less reusable encoding in
opposition to the FAIR principles.
We have devised and presented an encoding scheme which fully complies with
XML-TEI while being able to represent the content of encyclopedias in all their
complexity. A first implementation of this encoding, incomplete as it may be,
demonstrates its practical usefulness.
# Bibliography {-}
- Bohbot, H., Frontini, F., Luxardo, G., Khemakhem, M. & Romary, L. (2018). Presenting the Nénufar Project: a Diachronic Digital Edition of the Petit Larousse Illustré. *GLOBALEX2018 - Globalex workshop at LREC2018, May 2018, Miyazaki, Japan.*
- Jacquet-Pfau, C. (2015). Élaboration et destinée d’une encyclopédie à la fin du XIXe siècle: les trente-et-un volumes de La Grande Encyclopédie. Inventaire raisonné des sciences, des lettres et des arts par une Société de savants et de gens de lettres (1885-1902). In *Éla, Études de linguistique appliquée 177* (pp. 85-100).
- Roe, G., Gladstone, C. & Morrissey, R. (2016). Discourses and Disciplines in the Enlightenment: Topic Modeling the French Encyclopédie. In *Frontiers in Digital Humanities 2*
- Vigier, D., Moncla, L., Joliveau, T., Mcdonough K. & Brenon. A. (2019). GeoDISCO: Encyclopedic Geographical Discourse in France from the Enlightenment to Wikipedia. In *GIR'19, 13th International Workshop on Geographic Information Retrieval*, Nov 2019, Lyon, France.
- Williams, G. (2017). Mapping a dictionary: Using Atlas ti and XML to analyse a late XVIIth century dictionary. In *RiCOGNIZIONI. Rivista di Lingue e Letterature straniere e Culture moderne, [S.l.], v. 4, n. 7* (pp. 161-180), june 2017. ISSN 2384-8987. [http://www.ojs.unito.it/index.php/ricognizioni/article/download/2104/2024](http://www.ojs.unito.it/index.php/ricognizioni/article/download/2104/2024)
- Blanchard, G. & Olsen, M. (2002). Le système de renvoi dans l’Encyclopédie: Une cartographie des structures de connaissances au XVIIIe siècle. In *Recherches sur Diderot et sur l’Encyclopédie.* [http://journals.openedition.org/rde/122](http://journals.openedition.org/rde/122)
- Lojkine, S. (2013). « Et l'auteur anonyme n'est pas un lâche… » Diderot, l'engagement sans le nom. In *Littératures classiques, 80*, (pp. 249-263). [https://doi.org/10.3917/licla.080.0249](https://doi.org/10.3917/licla.080.0249)
- Moureau, F. (2001). *Le Roman vrai de l’Encyclopédie*. Paris, Gallimard. (pp. 124-129).
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